Can Smart Cities Reduce Homelessness Through Technology-Enhanced Solutions?

March 22, 2024

As we forge ahead into the 21st century, cities worldwide are adopting technological innovations to address societal issues more efficiently. One such concern is the challenge of homelessness. This article explores how smart cities can leverage emerging technologies and data-driven approaches to reduce homelessness through improved access to services, better care management, and more efficient use of housing resources.

Harnessing Technology to Understand and Address Homelessness

Key to solving any problem is comprehending its scope and complexity. Before technology, understanding the extent and nature of homelessness was a daunting task. Conventional data gathering methods, such as surveys and census counts, were often inaccurate, incomplete, and outdated.

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Today, smart cities are harnessing technology to gather real-time, comprehensive data on homelessness. They’re using mobile applications, sensor technology, and even drone imagery to identify and track homeless encampments within the city. This data is then analyzed to understand the demographics of the homeless population, their health concerns, and the obstacles they face in accessing housing and services.

In Los Angeles, for example, the city is using an app called LA-HOP to streamline the process of reporting and tracking homeless individuals, making it easier for social workers to identify and reach those in need.

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Improving Access to Services Through Digital Platforms

Once we have accurate data on homelessness, the next step is to ensure that homeless people can access the services they need. This is where technology can again play an instrumental role.

Smart cities are developing digital platforms that connect homeless individuals with community and public services. These platforms can inform them about available housing options, health care services, and support programs, and even help them apply for these services. In New York City, an online portal named ACCESS NYC provides such information and support to people experiencing homelessness.

Moreover, digital kiosks and public Wi-Fi stations are being set up across cities to ensure that homeless individuals can access these platforms. In the city of Austin, for instance, Community Care Collaborative’s kiosks provide access to medical records, appointment schedules, and other healthcare information for the homeless.

Leveraging Data for More Efficient Resource Management

Proper resource management is crucial in the fight against homelessness. But without precise data, it’s challenging to allocate resources where they’re needed most.

Technology can help cities gather and analyze data to make more informed decisions regarding resource allocation. For example, they can use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map homelessness and identify areas with the highest concentration of homelessness.

The city of Seattle uses such a data-driven approach. It employs a Homeless Management Information System (HMIS) to collect and analyze data on homelessness, enabling the city to target its resources more effectively.

Enhancing Health Care and Social Services for the Homeless

Healthcare and social services are fundamental in helping homeless individuals regain stability and independence. Technology can improve the delivery of these services and tailor them to the unique needs of homeless individuals.

Telemedicine is one such technological tool. It helps healthcare providers offer virtual consultations to homeless individuals who may find it difficult to access traditional healthcare facilities. In San Francisco, the city is partnering with health-tech companies to provide telemedicine services to their homeless population.

Social services can also benefit from technology. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning can analyze data to predict which individuals are at high risk of homelessness, enabling social workers to intervene earlier. This predictive analysis can also help in designing personalized care plans for homeless individuals.

Transforming Public Housing Through Technology

Finally, smart cities can use technology to transform public housing and make it more accessible and efficient.

Blockchain technology, for example, can bring transparency and efficiency to the public housing allocation process. It can ensure that houses are allocated fairly and that every homeless person has an equal chance of getting a house. Toronto is testing such a blockchain-based system for its public housing.

Similarly, smart home technologies can improve the living standards in public housing, making them more appealing to potential residents. For instance, smart thermostats can help residents control their energy usage, reducing their utility bills.

In conclusion, by leveraging technology, smart cities can address homelessness more effectively. Of course, technology alone can’t solve homelessness. But, it can surely play a crucial role as part of a comprehensive, multi-faceted solution.

Utilizing Data Analytics to Predict and Prevent Homelessness

Data analytics is a powerful tool that can be used by smart cities to predict and prevent homelessness. Predictive analytics uses current and historical data to forecast future events or outcomes. In the context of homelessness, it can determine the risk factors and trends associated with individuals falling into homelessness.

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning are also becoming pivotal in this area. These technologies can analyze vast amounts of data, recognize patterns, and predict which individuals are at high risk of experiencing homelessness. These predictive analyses can then be used by social service providers and policy-makers to take proactive measures, such as offering targeted assistance or intervening before the situation escalates.

For example, the city of Los Angeles employs an AI-based program called "The Coordinated Entry System" to predict homelessness. This program assesses people’s vulnerability and prioritizes them based on their need for housing. This predictive tool allows the city to intervene early and help those who are most at risk.

Another example is from San Francisco, where the city’s Department of Homelessness and Supportive Housing uses predictive analytics to determine the likelihood of individuals becoming homeless. The results then guide the allocation of resources and services to those most in need.

Innovating Public Health Strategies for the Homeless Population

Homelessness is a pressing public health issue, with homeless people being more susceptible to a range of health conditions such as mental illness, substance abuse, and chronic diseases. Addressing these health needs requires innovative solutions, particularly in smart cities where technology can be utilized to deliver better health care services.

One such innovation is the development of mobile health clinics, which bring essential health services directly to where homeless people are. These clinics can offer medical check-ups, vaccinations, and mental health support, among other services. The goal is not only to treat existing health issues but also to prevent potential health problems.

Another innovation in public health is the use of telemedicine, which allows health care providers to offer consultations via video calls. Telemedicine can be particularly beneficial for homeless individuals who may have difficulty accessing traditional health care facilities. In San Francisco, telemedicine services are being offered to the homeless population, allowing them to access medical advice without needing to travel to a clinic or hospital.

The use of electronic health records (EHRs) can also be beneficial in providing healthcare to people experiencing homelessness. EHRs can ensure that health care providers have accurate and up-to-date health information about their patients, which can lead to better quality of care. For instance, in Los Angeles, the city uses EHRs to improve the coordination of care for homeless individuals.


Solving the problem of homelessness requires a multi-faceted approach that incorporates economic, social, and policy interventions. As we have seen, smart cities have the potential to harness technology in innovative ways to address homelessness. Through data analytics, predictive modeling, improved public health strategies, and innovations in housing allocation and quality, cities can provide better support and services to people experiencing homelessness.

While technology alone will not solve homelessness, it is a powerful tool that can significantly contribute to efforts to reduce and prevent homelessness. As smart cities continue to evolve, it is crucial to ensure that these technological solutions are used ethically and responsibly, with a focus on protecting the rights and dignity of all individuals, particularly those experiencing homelessness. Ultimately, the goal should be to create inclusive, equitable cities where everyone has access to safe, stable, and affordable housing.